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UNITED STATES HUB-AND-SPOKE ALLIANCE SYSTEM



  Jun 13, 2024

UNITED STATES HUB-AND-SPOKE ALLIANCE SYSTEM



The hub-and-spoke alliance system, also known as the San Francisco System, is a network of bilateral alliances between the United States and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In this system, the United States acts as the “hub,” and the other countries are the “spokes.” The alliances involve political, military, and economic commitments.

Bilateral vs. Multilateral Alliances

The hub-and-spoke system is different from multilateral alliances like NATO. Here’s the hub-and-spokes alliance system in the Indo-Pacific region, including both bilateral and multilateral partnerships:

Hub:

• United States

Bilateral Spokes:

• Australia (US-Australia alliance)
• Japan (US-Japan alliance)
• South Korea (US-South Korea alliance)
• Philippines (US-Philippines alliance)
• Thailand (US-Thailand alliance)
• Singapore (US-Singapore alliance)
• India (US-India strategic partnership)

Multilateral Spokes:

• Quad (US-Australia-Japan-India)
• AUKUS (US-Australia-UK)

In this model, the US is the central hub, connected to various bilateral spokes (its alliances and partnerships with individual countries) and multilateral spokes (Quad and AUKUS). These bilateral and multilateral partnerships work together to promote a free and open Indo-Pacific region, focusing on shared interests, security, and strategic cooperation.

This system has proven adaptable and remains a cornerstone of U.S. strategy in the Asia-Pacific region, ensuring stability and addressing emerging challenges.



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