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UN Security Council Reform: G4 Nations and India's Role



  Apr 29, 2024

UN SECURITY COUNCIL REFORM: G4 and India



1. What is the UN Security Council?

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for ensuring international peace and security, accepting new members into the UN, and approving any changes to its charter.

2. Why is the reform of the UN Security Council considered necessary?

Reform is considered necessary to make the Council more representative, efficient, and transparent, reflecting the geopolitical realities of the 21st century. Current membership and power structures, including the veto power held by the five permanent members, do not adequately represent the global diversity or address the current international dynamics.

3. What does India’s proposal entail?

India’s proposal suggests expanding the UN Security Council from 15 to 25-26 members, including adding six permanent and four or five non-permanent members. It emphasizes the inclusion of underrepresented regions and suggests that new permanent members might initially forego the veto power to facilitate acceptance of the proposal.

4. Who are the G4 nations, and what is their role in this reform?

The G4 nations — Brazil, Germany, Japan, and India — are a group of countries seeking permanent seats on the Security Council. They support mutual backing for each other’s bids and advocate comprehensive reform of the Council to make it more reflective of today’s global order.

5. How has the international community reacted to the proposal?

The international reaction has been mixed. Some countries, like the United Kingdom, have expressed support, especially for the inclusion of the G4 nations and permanent representation for Africa. However, there may be resistance from other quarters, particularly from current permanent members and their allies, concerning changes to the veto rights and power dynamics.

6. What are the potential challenges in implementing this reform?

The main challenges include achieving a broad consensus among member states, particularly regarding veto powers and permanent membership. The interests and political dynamics within the UN make comprehensive reform complex and potentially contentious.

7. What are the next steps in the reform process?

The next steps typically involve further negotiations and discussions among UN member states. Achieving reform requires a two-thirds majority vote in the General Assembly and acceptance by all permanent members of the Security Council, which includes their agreement not to use their veto against the proposal.



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