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UN Security Council Reform and G4 Nations’ Proposal



  Mar 11, 2024

UN Security Council Reform and G4 Nations’ Proposal


1. What is the G4 nations’ proposal for UN Security Council reform?

The G4 nations (Brazil, Germany, Japan, and India) have proposed expanding the UN Security Council’s membership from 15 to 25-26 members. This includes adding six new permanent and four or five non-permanent members to better reflect the geopolitical realities of today’s world. The proposal aims to make the Council more representative, legitimate, and effective.
 

2. Why is the UN Security Council reform necessary?

The need for reform arises from the Security Council’s current composition, which reflects the geopolitical landscape of 1945 rather than today’s global dynamics. This has led to under-representation of key regions and inefficiencies in addressing modern international challenges and conflicts. Reform is seen as crucial for enhancing the Council’s legitimacy and effectiveness in maintaining international peace and security.
 

3. What regions would gain permanent representation under the G4 proposal?

The G4 model suggests adding two permanent members from African states, two from Asia-Pacific states, one from Latin American and Caribbean states, and one from Western European and Other states. This is aimed at correcting the current imbalances and ensuring that the Council reflects the diversity of the international community.
 

4. How does the G4 proposal address the issue of the veto power?

The G4 nations have shown flexibility on the contentious issue of the veto, proposing that new permanent members would not exercise the veto until a review decides on the matter. This approach is meant to foster constructive negotiations on reform without letting the veto issue stall the entire reform process.
 

5. What are the next steps for implementing the G4 proposal?

For the proposal to move forward, it requires broad consensus among UN member states and a democratic and inclusive election process overseen by the General Assembly to determine the new permanent members. The process also involves continued dialogue and negotiations to address the concerns and interests of the wider UN membership.
 

6. How have other countries reacted to the G4 proposal?

The proposal has received strong support from a wide range of UN member states, including explicit backing from France for the G4 nations’ permanent membership. The United States has also emphasized the need for the Security Council to be more representative of the world as it exists today, supporting the expansion of both permanent and non-permanent seats.
 

7. What is the significance of the UN’s 80th anniversary in relation to the reform?

The UN’s 80th anniversary, occurring next year, is viewed as a crucial milestone for achieving concrete progress on Security Council reform. The G4 nations see this as an opportune moment to advance their proposal and make significant strides toward a more inclusive and effective Council.


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