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The Standard Model: Fundamentals and Unanswered Questions



  Oct 07, 2023

Standard Model of Particle Physics: A Brief Overview


Framework: The Standard Model is the theoretical foundation for understanding the fundamental particles and forces of the universe.
 
1. Fundamental Particles:
 
• Quarks: Six types (up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom) that combine to form protons and neutrons.
 
• Leptons: Six types, including the electron, muon, tau, and their neutrinos. Electrons orbit atomic nuclei, while neutrinos rarely interact with other matter.
 
2. Force Carriers: Particles that mediate the fundamental forces.
 
• Photons: Transmit electromagnetic force. Responsible for light and electromagnetic radiation.
 
• Gluons: Bind quarks together via the strong nuclear force.
 
• W/Z Bosons: Mediators of the weak nuclear force, which plays a role in nuclear decay.
 
3. Higgs Boson : A unique particle tied to the Higgs field. It provides mass to other fundamental particles when they interact with this field.
 
Not Covered: Despite its broad scope, the Standard Model doesn't incorporate gravity (usually described by General Relativity). It also doesn't explain dark matter or dark energy, leaving these as areas of ongoing research in the quest for a more comprehensive theory.


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