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SIMPLIFIER: SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR:ISRO



  May 31, 2024

SIMPLIFIER: SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR:ISRO



Introduction:

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a technique for producing high-resolution images using a radar system. It operates in any weather and at any time, using longer wavelengths to see through clouds.

How SAR Works:

SAR emits an electromagnetic signal towards a surface and records the backscattered signal. The image resolution improves by synthesizing a virtual large antenna from a smaller physical antenna, allowing fine detail observation.

Advantages:

• Cloud Penetration: Sees through clouds and smoke, ensuring continuous visibility.

• High Resolution: Achieves centimeter-level resolution.

• Day and Night Operation: Functions irrespective of time and weather.

Applications:

• Defense: Essential for surveillance, reconnaissance, and precision targeting.

• Agriculture: Provides detailed information on crop growth, health, and stress, aiding in decision-making.

• Disaster Management: Monitors and responds to natural disasters.

• Other Fields: Oceanography, land-use, geology, and cartography.

India’s Adoption:

India utilizes SAR technology in various ways:

• RISAT-1: Launched by ISRO in 2012, it is India’s first all-weather radar imaging satellite.

• MiniSAR: ISRO developed a miniaturized airborne SAR payload.

• GalaxEye: In August 2023, GalaxEye unveiled a high-resolution drone-based SAR system.

• NISAR: A collaboration between NASA and ISRO, the NISAR mission will use L-band and S-band SAR instruments to provide a 240 km swath with resolutions ranging from 2 to 8 meters, offering unprecedented earth observation capabilities.

Key Players:

• DRDO: Uses SAR for defense applications.

• ISRO: Developed SAR technologies for agriculture, disaster management, and more.

• Start-ups: Companies like Iceye and Capella Space innovate with inexpensive nanosatellites.

Future Potential:

SAR is poised to revolutionize Earth observation by offering continuous, detailed monitoring for diverse sectors, enhancing global observation capabilities.



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