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Female Employment in India: Survey Perspectives Implications



  Oct 21, 2023

Periodic Labour Force Survey 2023 and Female Employment


1. What does the annual Periodic Labour Force Survey reveal about female employment in India?

The survey suggests that female employment has increased in both rural and urban areas over the past few years. In rural areas, the female participation rate has risen to approximately 41.5%, compared to around 25% five years ago. In urban areas, it has increased from 20.4% in 2017-18 to 25.4% in 2022-23.
 

2. How can the changes in female workforce participation be interpreted from different perspectives?

The changes in female workforce participation can be viewed from political, sociological, and economic perspectives. These perspectives often overlap in discussions, leading to various implications.
 

3. What are the political implications of increased female workforce participation?

Increased female workforce participation allows governments and opposition parties to create policies and manifestos that target females in areas such as education, health, nutrition, energy, and transport. This can lead to better-educated and healthier women who, in turn, contribute positively to society.
 

4. How does increased female workforce participation impact society sociologically?

Sociologically, increased female workforce participation can lead to transitional challenges as society modernizes and accepts that both males and females are equal. The objection is not to women working but to them "going out" to work. The pace of acceptance varies in different parts of India but generally moves in a positive direction.
 

5. What is the economic aspect of increased female workforce participation?

From an economic standpoint, the gender of the labor force does not affect the capital being worked on. However, employers often pay female employees less than males, assuming that their marginal product is lower. This pay gap is a global phenomenon and is prevalent in the informal sector in India.
 

6. Why do female workers often receive lower pay compared to males, despite the objective irrelevance of gender in labor productivity?

Employers tend to pay females less because they assume that the value of the marginal product of a female worker is lower than that of a male worker. Work is not so important for women. It is the second job in the family. overtime is difficult. Maternity leave is disruptive.This gender pay gap persists even when patriarchal biases are not at play, and more women enter the job market, exerting downward pressure on wages. Please note that these interpretations and implications are subject to various factors and may vary based on specific contexts and regions within India.


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