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National Geo-heritage Sites India



  Mar 30, 2024

National Geo-heritage Sites India



India, with its vast and diverse geographical expanse, hosts a multitude of National Geo-heritage Sites recognized for their outstanding geological features. These sites span across the country, representing significant geological phenomena such as unique rock formations, fossil records, and geomorphological features. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) plays a crucial role in identifying and preserving these sites for their scientific, educational, and aesthetic values. Below are some of the notable National Geo-heritage Sites across India:

1. Lonar Crater, Maharashtra: A saline soda lake located in Maharashtra, India, formed by a meteorite impact during the Pleistocene Epoch. It is a unique geological structure, being the only hypervelocity impact crater in basaltic rock anywhere on Earth.

2. St. Mary’s Islands, Karnataka: Famous for their columnar basaltic lava formations, these islands off the coast of Karnataka offer insight into volcanic activity and continental drift. The hexagonal mosaic of rocks is believed to have formed due to sub-aerial subvolcanic activity around 88 million years ago.

3. Erra Matti Dibbalu (Red Sand Dunes), Andhra Pradesh: Located near Visakhapatnam, these are rare and spectacular red sand dunes formed over thousands of years. They are recognized for their geological significance and striking landscape.

4. The Great Boundary Fault, Rajasthan: A significant geological structure running through Rajasthan, it marks a major fault line between different geological formations and is a site of interest for understanding the tectonic history of the region.

5. Fossil Parks of India: Several fossil parks across India, including the Shivalik Fossil Park in Himachal Pradesh and the Ghughua Fossil Park in Madhya Pradesh, preserve extensive fossil records that provide insights into prehistoric life and environmental conditions.

6. Amarnath Cave, Jammu & Kashmir: Besides its religious significance, Amarnath Cave is geologically notable for its stalagmite formation of ice, which resembles the Shiva Linga. This natural phenomenon attracts both pilgrims and geologists.

7. Magnetite Quartzite deposits, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka: Known for their high-grade iron ore, these deposits are of significant economic and geological interest. They offer insights into the metamorphic processes and the conditions under which such high-grade iron ores form.

8. Rajmahal Volcanic Basin, Jharkhand: This area is known for its volcanic formations and fossilized remains that provide evidence of ancient ecosystems. The Rajmahal Traps are significant for studying Deccan volcanism and its impact on climate and biological evolution.

9. Barren Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands: India’s only active volcano is located here. Its eruptions and lava flows offer a live laboratory for volcanologists and geologists to study active volcanic processes.

These sites not only contribute to our understanding of Earth’s geological history but also serve as natural laboratories for educational and research purposes. The protection and preservation of these geo-heritage sites are vital for sustaining India’s rich geological legacy.


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