Gender Earnings Gap in India: A Deep Dive into Disparities and Work Hours
The gender earnings gap remains a stark reality in India, despite some strides towards equality. Periodic Labour Force Surveys (PLFS) indicate that the gap varies across different types of employment and is heavily influenced by societal norms and individual choices.
Overall Gap: As of 2023, men earned 24% more than women in regular wage jobs, with male self-employed workers earning 2.8 times that of women.
Work Hours: A significant factor in this gap is the work hours; women generally work fewer hours than men. In 2023, self-employed men worked 50% more hours than women, while the gap was 19% for regular wage workers.
Hourly Earnings: When looking at hourly earnings, the gender gap narrows. For regular wage workers, the gap in hourly earnings is only around 4% as of 2023, down from 11% in 2019.
Social Factors: Societal norms often dictate that women should undertake more domestic responsibilities, which limits their ability to work longer hours, impacting their total earnings.
Workplace Interventions: Mandate the provision of creches and generous maternity leaves.
Awareness Campaigns: Educate communities to transform traditional norms that burden women with domestic responsibilities.
Flexible Working Hours: Implement policies that offer more flexible work hours to accommodate women who handle household duties.
MCQ: What is the key factor behind the gender earnings gap in India, as of 2023?
Higher educational qualifications for men
Lesser bonus and overtime for women
Lesser work hours for women
Discrimination in promotions
Answer: 3. Lesser work hours for women
Explanation: The gender earnings gap is significantly influenced by the disparity in work hours between men and women. While men generally work longer hours, women are often restricted due to societal norms and responsibilities, which include domestic and child-rearing duties. This affects their total earnings, contributing to the gender gap.
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