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ENERGY TRANSITIONS TOWARDS NET-ZERO FOR INDIA



  Apr 10, 2024

ENERGY TRANSITIONS TOWARDS NET-ZERO FOR INDIA



1. What is Net-Zero?

Net-Zero refers to balancing the amount of emitted greenhouse gases with the equivalent amount of carbon removal or offsetting from the atmosphere, aiming to achieve a balance where no more carbon is emitted than is removed.

2. Why is India aiming for Net-Zero?

India is aiming for Net-Zero to combat climate change, reduce pollution, ensure energy security, and fulfill its commitments under international agreements like the Paris Agreement. Achieving Net-Zero is crucial for sustainable development and safeguarding the environment for future generations.

3. What is the target year for India to achieve Net-Zero emissions?

India has declared 2070 as the target year to achieve Net-Zero emissions, aligning its energy transition pathways with global efforts to mitigate climate change impacts.

4. What role does coal play in India’s energy transition?

Despite the shift towards clean energy, coal is projected to remain a significant part of India’s energy mix for the next two decades, acting as the backbone of the Indian energy system due to its current role in power generation and industrial processes.

5. How significant is nuclear power in achieving Net-Zero?

Nuclear power is deemed crucial for India’s Net-Zero goal. It offers a reliable and low-carbon source of baseload power, essential for reducing dependency on fossil fuels and supporting the integration of renewable energy sources.

6. What are the challenges in transitioning to renewable energy?

Challenges include the intermittent nature of solar and wind power, requiring advancements in energy storage, grid infrastructure upgrades, and ensuring a stable energy supply. Additionally, scaling up renewable energy involves significant investments and overcoming technological and regulatory hurdles.

7. What investments are required for India’s energy transition?

The transition to Net-Zero by 2070 requires substantial investments estimated to be in the range of Rs 150-200 lakh crore (about US$ 2-2.5 trillion or US$ 40-50 billion/year). A considerable portion of these financial flows will need to come from international sources.

8. How does electrification of end-use sectors contribute to Net-Zero?

Electrifying end-use sectors like transport, heating, and industry reduces reliance on fossil fuels by substituting them with electricity, preferably generated from renewable or nuclear sources. This shift is crucial for decreasing emissions and enhancing energy efficiency.

9. What is the significance of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in achieving Net-Zero?

CCS technologies capture carbon dioxide emissions from sources like power plants and industrial processes, storing it underground or utilizing it in other products. CCS is vital for offsetting emissions from sectors where direct reduction is challenging.

10. How will India’s emissions change by 2070?

India’s emissions are projected to range between 0.56 btCO2 and 1.0 btCO2 by 2070, with efforts focusing on reducing emissions intensity and increasing carbon sequestration through forestry and other methods to meet Net-Zero targets.

Achieving Net-Zero is a complex and multifaceted challenge requiring cooperation across sectors, significant technological innovation, and substantial investments. The pathways outlined for India emphasize a balanced approach, incorporating a mix of energy sources and strategies tailored to India’s unique energy landscape and developmental needs.


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