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CLIMATE-RESILIENT IRRIGATION



  Jun 11, 2024

CLIMATE-RESILIENT IRRIGATION



Climate-resilient irrigation is a set of techniques and practices aimed at helping farmers adapt to climate change, conserve water and land, and increase their agricultural productivity. It involves methods that enhance water use efficiency, reduce dependence on rainfall, and mitigate the impacts of climate variability. Some of these techniques include:

• Water Saving Irrigation (WSI):
This technique can reduce water consumption and increase water productivity, helping overcome water scarcity and mitigate the negative effects of climate change on water resources. Studies have shown that WSI can also increase grain production.

• Sprinkler Irrigation:
This method can enhance the yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat compared to border irrigation.

• Climate-smart Water Technologies:
These include drip irrigation, central pivot irrigation, hydrogel, and the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) method, which are effective in optimizing water usage and increasing crop productivity.

• Rainwater Storage:
Farmers can construct ponds, check dams, and farm ponds to capture and store rainwater. This stored water can be used for irrigation during dry spells or droughts, reducing farmers’ dependence on unpredictable rainfall patterns.

INDIAN PRACTICES IN CLIMATE-RESILIENT IRRIGATION

In India, several traditional and modern practices contribute to climate-resilient irrigation:

• Jal Shakti Abhiyan:
This government initiative focuses on water conservation and rainwater harvesting, emphasizing the importance of managing water resources effectively.

• Drip Irrigation:
Widely promoted in India, drip irrigation systems deliver water directly to the plant roots, reducing water wastage and enhancing crop yield.

• Bamboo Drip Irrigation:
Practiced in the northeastern states, this traditional method uses bamboo pipes to transport water to fields, optimizing water use in hilly terrains.

• Khadins:
In Rajasthan, khadins are earthen embankments built to harvest and store rainwater for irrigation, effectively managing water resources in arid regions.

• Ahar-Pyne System:
Used in Bihar, this ancient method involves diverting river water through channels (pynes) into fields (ahars), ensuring water availability during dry periods.

• Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA):
This scheme supports the construction of water conservation structures like check dams and ponds, enhancing water storage capacity in rural areas.

By adopting these techniques, supported by government programs and integrating traditional customs, farmers can improve their resilience to climate change while ensuring sustainable agricultural practices.



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