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CHIRAND: FROM NEOLITHIC SETTLERS TO KUSHANA DYNASTY



  Apr 17, 2024

CHIRAND: FROM NEOLITHIC SETTLERS TO KUSHANA DYNASTY



1. What historical periods are represented at the Chirand archaeological site?
Chirand(Bihar) showcases a cultural sequence spanning from the Neolithic period through to the Kushana dynasty. The periods identified include the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Northern Black Polished Ware-associated period, a broader historical period from the 1st to 3rd century BCE, and a late historical phase.

2. How did the Neolithic inhabitants of Chirand live?
During the Neolithic period, the inhabitants of Chirand lived in circular houses constructed from wild reeds, situated on the alluvial deposits of the Ganga River. Their diet included cereals like rice, wheat, barley, and legumes, supplemented by fish. They used bone tools and produced beads from various stones, linking them to broader trade networks.

3. What changes occurred during the Chalcolithic period at Chirand?
In the Chalcolithic period, around 2000 to 1950 BCE, the society at Chirand began using copper, which marked a significant technological advancement. The architectural style evolved to include houses made of reeds and bamboo with mud plaster and burnt earth floors. This period also featured secondary burials, indicating changes in social practices.

4. What is the significance of iron at Chirand?
Iron's introduction marked a major technological and societal shift, signaling the beginning of urbanism at Chirand. Iron tools such as sickles, axes, and ploughshares were found, indicating a sophisticated level of craftsmanship and utility in daily activities.

5. How did the settlement patterns change in later periods at Chirand?
During the Iron Age and the subsequent periods, there was a noticeable change in settlement patterns. The use of baked bricks and the construction of more complex and structured buildings like residential complexes and monastic buildings became prevalent, especially during the rule of the Kushana dynasty.

6. What findings indicate the continued importance of Chirand in later historical periods?
Even after periods of abandonment, Chirand remained significant, as evidenced by discoveries such as a pot containing five gold coins from the Kalachuri dynasty and various sculptures from the Pala period. These findings suggest that Chirand was reoccupied and maintained its cultural and historical significance into the medieval period.

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