BEWARE OF FAKE INSTITUTES WITH SIMILAR NAMES. blank    blank
banner

Behavioral Evonomics and Rationality



  Apr 06, 2024

Behavioral Evonomics and Rationality



Q1: What is the basic assumption of economic decision-making?

A1: The basic assumption in economics is that humans make decisions based on rational self-interest. This means they aim to benefit themselves in the most efficient way possible, such as buying more apples when their price drops to get more value for their money.

Q2: How did classical economists view self-interest in markets?

A2: Classical economists like Adam Smith believed that self-interest drives markets efficiently. Smith’s “invisible hand” theory suggested that individuals seeking personal gain end up benefiting society as a whole because their actions contribute to a distribution of resources that meets collective needs.

Q3: What does behavioral economics say about human decision-making?

A3: Behavioral economics, influenced significantly by Professor Daniel Kahneman, argues that people do not always act rationally due to biases, emotions, and other psychological factors. It studies why people sometimes make choices that appear illogical, acknowledging the human side of economic decisions.

Q4: Can you give an example of irrational decision-making related to fitness?

A4: Yes, even if a gym membership is more cost-effective in the long run, an individual might choose to pay for expensive daily fitness classes instead, overestimating their commitment to regular exercise. This decision, driven by optimism bias, demonstrates the influence of psychological factors over rational calculation.

Q5: Why might someone buy a more expensive item just because it’s on sale?

A5: Behavioral economics explains this through the concept of perceived value and framing effect. People might buy a more expensive item branded as “on sale” because the sale creates a perception of value, making the decision seem rational at the moment, even if a cheaper alternative offers the same quality.

Q6: How does behavioral economics challenge classical economic theories?

A6: Behavioral economics challenges classical theories by demonstrating that economic decisions are not always made based on rational analysis. By incorporating psychological insights, it shows that biases, emotions, and social factors can significantly influence choices, leading to decisions that classical economics would not predict.

Q7: What is the impact of behavioral economics on policy and marketing?

A7: Behavioral economics has profound implications for policy and marketing by offering insights into how to design interventions (like nudges) that can lead to better health, financial, and social outcomes. For example, changing the default option to being enrolled in a retirement savings plan can increase participation rates, leveraging the inertia bias for positive outcomes.

Q8: How does the concept of loss aversion relate to economic decisions?

A8: Loss aversion, a key concept from Kahneman’s work, suggests that people feel the pain of losses more intensely than the pleasure of equivalent gains. This can lead to decisions like holding onto losing stocks in hopes of recuperating losses, demonstrating how fear of loss can override rational decision-making in economic contexts.

Summary

Behavioral economics provides a nuanced view of economic decision-making, highlighting the role of psychological factors. It enriches our understanding of how economic choices are made in the real world, challenging the notion that individuals always act in rational self-interest.



SRIRAM's


Share:
 

Get a call back

Fill the below form to get free counselling for UPSC Civil Services exam preparation

 
UPSC DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS

 
RBI FINANCIAL INCLUSION (FI) INDEX
 
Stagflation: Causes, Effects, and Economic Impact
 
Inflation Expectations in India:Simplifier
 
Opportunity Costs and Trade-offs:Simplifier
 
DIGITIZING INDIA’S HISTORICAL RECORDS: FAQs
 
GOVERNOR IMMUNITY Under Art.361
 
India's digital public infrastructure:Macroeconomic View
 
INVESTMENT-LED VS CONSUMPTION-LED GROWTH IN INDIA TODAY
 
Global IT outage:Blue Screen of Death
 
Natural rate of interest in an economy
 
CREDIT GROWTH OUTPACING DEPOSIT GROWTH IN BANKS
 
Enemy Property in India
 
Union Public Service Commission (UPSC):Indian Constitution
 
DEFLATION AND DISINFLATION :SIMPLIFIER
 
LORENZ CURVE AND GINI INDEX