Analysis of the ULFA Peace Accord

  Jan 02, 2024

Analysis of the ULFA Peace Accord


The United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA), a militant group in Assam, India, has been involved in an armed struggle for the state’s independence for decades. After about 12 years of negotiations, a significant peace deal has been signed between a pro-talks faction of ULFA, the Indian Union Government, and the Assam State Government.

Key Points of the Peace Accord:

1. End of Armed Struggle: Led by Arabinda Rajkhowa and Anup Chetia, this ULFA faction will disband within a month.
2. Agreement Details: The Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) includes 12 main points focusing on political, social, and economic aspects.
3. Indigenous Rights: The agreement addresses ST status for certain communities, reservation in education and employment, and identity, culture, and heritage issues.
4. Illegal Immigration and NRC: Concerns about the National Register of Citizens and illegal immigration are covered.
5. Land and Forest Management: Provisions for land rights, forest conservation, and prevention of encroachments.
6. Development Initiatives: Rehabilitation of armed cadres, a special development package, and planned state development.
7. Monitoring Committee: A joint body including representatives from ULFA, the Ministry of Home Affairs, and Assam’s administration to oversee the implementation.

Impacts and Significance:

Reduction in Violence: Amit Shah, India’s Union Home Minister, highlighted a significant decrease in violence, deaths, and kidnappings in Assam since 2014.
Developmental Promise: The Indian government has committed to a substantial development package and projects for Assam.
Delimitation Agreement: The accord includes an understanding on delimitation based on principles used in the 2023 exercise, ensuring the representation of indigenous people.
Future of ULFA-I: The stance of the ULFA (Independent) faction, led by Paresh Baruah, remains unclear, with potential implications for the overall peace process.


This historic agreement represents a significant step towards resolving long-standing conflicts in Assam. The successful implementation of the accord’s provisions could lead to sustained peace and development in the region. However, the response of the ULFA-I faction and the practical execution of the agreement’s points will be crucial in determining the long-term impact of this accord.



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