India is the world's largest democratic country. Our Indian constitution was adopted on January 26, 1950, after nearly 200 years of colonial rule, countless freedom struggles, the Indian national movement, sectarian violence, and a historic legacy. The Constitution defines the duties and responsibilities of the three branches of government: the judiciary, legislative and executive. The Indian Constitution has several important articles that define a person's fundamental rights, political rules, procedures, and duties. Hence, this article will help us in learning about all of the important articles of the Indian Constitution.
How many Articles are in the Constitution?
The Indian Constitution is an important topic for IAS aspirants as it mostly appears in the UPSC exam. A constitutional article is a set of instructions that describe a rule & regulations, theses articles discuss the political system, individual rights, and election process, etc. There are 448 articles, 25 parts, 12 schedules, and 104 amendments in Indian constitution, earlier that in 1949 there were 395 articles in 22 parts. The articles in each part cover various aspects of the Constitution, such as legislatures, executive branches, schedules, sections, constitutional bodies, statutory bodies, fundamental rights, and so on.
Also Read, Important Features of Indian Constitution
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Since Indian Polity is an important subject for the aspirants in UPSC exam, it is essential to know all the articles and amendments of the Indian Constitution. Below we have mentioned a list of the most significant Indian Constitutional Articles, along with a brief description of each one that made up the Indian Constitution.
Article 1 - Article 4 (Part 1)
Article 5 - Article 11 (Part 2)
Article 12 - Article 35 (Part 3)
There used to be 7 Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution, but currently only 6 are left. The Right to Property U/A 31 was removed by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978. A legal right U/A 300-A was created and added to Part XII of the Constitution.
Directive Principal of States Policy: Article 36 - 51 (Part 4)
Fundamental Duties: Article 51A (Part 4A)
Earlier there were 10 Fundamental Duties but after 86th Amendment Act 2002 it became 11 Duties.
Union: Article 52 - 151 (Part 5)
States: Article 152 - 237 (Part 6)
Repealed: Article 238 (Part 7)
Union Territories: Article 239 - 242 (Part 8)
Panchayats: Article 243 - 243O (Part 9)
Municipalities: Article 243P - 243ZG (Part 9A)
Co-operative Societies: Article 243ZH - 243ZT (Part 9B)
Scheduled and Tribal Areas: Article 244 (Part 10)
Center- State Relations: Article 245 - 263 (Part 11)
Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits: Article 264 - 300A (Part 12)
Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territories of India: Article 301 - 307 (Part 13)
Services Under Center and State: Article 308 - 323 (Part 14)
Tribunals: Article 323A - 323B (Part 14A)
Elections: Article 324 - 329 (Part 15)
Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities etc: Article 330 - 342 (Part 16)
Official Language: Article 343 - 351 (Part 17)
Emergency: Article 352 - 360 (Part 18)
Miscellaneous: Article 361 - 367 (Part 19)
Amendment of Constitution: Article 368 (Part 20)
Special, Transitional and Temporary Provisions: Article 369 - 392 (Part 21)
Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals : Article 392 - 395 (Part 22)
Although you are aware of the articles listed above, it is not necessary to know every article of the Indian Constitution for UPSC exams. The table below gives you a summary of the most important articles on the Indian Constitution for the Civil Services exam.
|Article 12-35:||This article discusses the six fundamental rights. Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights and Right to Constitutional Remedies.|
|Article 36-51:||This part of the article covers the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP). The concept of DPSP originated in the Spanish Constitution and was borrowed from the Constitution of Ireland.|
|Article 51 A:||It specifies 11 fundamental duties and responsibilities that all citizens of our country need to perform. The basic requirement of these duties is to protect the sovereignty of our nation and safeguard the unity and integrity of our country.|
|Article 343:||Under this article, the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script.|
|Article 356:||The Article 356 of the Indian Constitution empowers the President to suspend the state government and impose President's rule in any state of the country. The President may declare an emergency if he believes that the state government can no longer function according to the provisions of the Constitution. It is also known as ‘State Emergency’ or ‘Constitutional Emergency’.|
|Article 370:||Under the provision of Article 370, provides a special status to Jammu and Kashmir and allows the state to draft its own constitution. Parliament needs the approval of the J&K government before making laws in the state - apart from defense, foreign affairs, finance and communications.|
|Article 395:||The Indian Independence Act, 1947, and the Government of India Act, 1935, together with all enactments amending or supplementing the latter Act, but not including the Abolition of Privy Council Jurisdiction Act, 1949, are hereby repealed.|
The Indian Constitution has 12 Schedules. These are listed below, along with the Indian Constitution articles:
|Indian Constitution Schedules||Importance|
|First Schedule||It includes the states and union territories|
|Second Schedule||Provisions relating to government authorities such as President, Ministers, Governors, Chairman, Speaker, Judges, etc.|
|Third Schedule||Includes the oath and affirmation forms|
|Fourth Schedule||It specifies the allotment of Rajya Sabha seats to States and Union Territories.|
|Fifth Schedule||It regulates the management and control of scheduled areas and tribes.|
|Sixth Schedule||It makes provisions for the management of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.|
|Seventhh Schedule||It discusses the three legislative powers— Union, State, and Concurrent.|
|Eigth Schedule||It covers the 22 official Indian languages.|
|Ninth Schedule||It mentions state acts and regulations like land reform and zamindari abolishment. It protects laws from judicial interference.|
|Tenth Schedule||It discusses the dismissal and removal of MPs and state legislators for comparable reasons.|
|Eleventh Schedule||It specifies Panchayats' powers, authority, and obligations. There are a total of 29 matters.|
|Twelth Schedule:||It deals with the provisions that define municipal powers, authority, and obligations.|
The Indian constitution originally included 395 articles divided into 22 parts and 8 schedules. The number of articles has expanded to 448 since its introduction with various amendments. There are 25 parts of Indian Constitution that are mentioned below:
Ans. Minorities based on religion or language are recognized under Article 30 of India's Constitution. By Article 30, all minorities are guaranteed the right to create and govern educational institutions of their choice; they are not barred from doing so because they are a minority group.
Ans. Article 12 defines the term 'state'. Unless the context indicates otherwise, "the State" includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.
Ans. In India, the Government of India Act, 1919 established a bicameral legislature with a Council of States consisting of 60 members and a Legislative Assembly consisting of 145 members.
Ans. The Constitution guarantees six fundamental rights to Indian citizens as follows:
(i) right to equality
(ii) right to freedom
(iii) right against exploitation
(iv) right to freedom of religion
(v) cultural and educational rights
(vi) right to constitutional remedies.
Ans. The constitution includes a preamble and 470 articles divided into 25 parts. It has been revised 104 times, with the most recent amendment taking effect on 25 January 2020.
Ans. Article 14. Equality before law. It ensures the equal treatment of everyone before the law, prevents discrimination on various grounds, treats everybody as equals in matters of public employment, and abolishes untouchability, and titles (such as Sir, Rai Bahadur, etc).