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ARTICLES

ARTICLES

ARTICLES

What Is the Darknet? It is sometimes confused with the deep web, a term that refers to all parts of the Internet which cannot be indexed by search engines and so can't be found through Google, Bing, Yahoo, and so forth. Experts believe that the deep web is hundreds of times larger than the surface web (i.e., the Internet you get to via browsers and search engines). In fact, most of the deep web contains nothing sinister whatsoever. It includes large databases, libraries, and members-only websites that are not available to the general public. The dark web (or dark net) is a small part of the deep web. Its contents are not accessible through ... Read More...

  Jan 05, 2017   General Category

What is CYGNSS? The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space-based system developed by the University of Michigan and Southwest Research Institute with the aim of improving hurricane forecasting by better understanding the interactions between the sea and the air near the core of a storm.  The Science of CYGNSS The same GPS technology that helps people get where they're going in a car will soon be used in space to impact hurricane forecasting. The technology is a key capability in a NASA mission called the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). The CYGNSS mission will use eight mi... Read More...

  Jan 04, 2017   General Category

India is a federal form of government and because labour is a subject in the Concurrent List of the Indian Constitution, labour matters are in the jurisdiction of both central and state governments. Both central and state governments have enacted laws on labour relations and employment issues. The advantages with placing a subject in the Concurrent List is that it has national orientation and at the same time has regional flexibility. While the federal law sets standards, states can have their own local variations. Thus, competitive federalism works well. For example, labour legislation. It may not be feasible  to liberalise the labour law for the whole... Read More...

  Jan 02, 2017   General Category

Scientists have a new tool to systematically track the evolution of glaciers and ice sheets as the climate warms. The US$1-million system, which is funded by NASA and uses data from the Landsat 8 satellite will do that. The Global Land Ice Velocity Extraction project (GoLIVE) is the first to provide scientists with regular, semi-automated measurements of ice movement across the entire world. Landsat covers the planet every 16 days, and by comparing landmarks and subtle features in ice from one image to another, researchers are able to trace the flow of ice over weeks, seasons and years. Scientists have been using satel... Read More...

  Jan 02, 2017   General Category

Swasthya Rakshan Program has been launched by the AYUSH Ministry to promote health and health education in villages    Aims and objectives:- To organize Swasthya Rakshan OPDs, Swasthya Parikshan Camps and Health/Hygiene awareness programme Awareness about cleanliness of domestic surroundings and environment. Provide medical aid/incidental support in the adopted Colonies/villages. Documentation of demographic information, food habits, hygiene conditions, seasons, lifestyle etc., incidence/prevalence of disease and their relation to the incidence of disease. 5.      Assessment of hea... Read More...

  Jan 01, 2017   General Category

Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is a system that powers multiple bank accounts into a single mobile application (of any participating bank), merging several banking features, seamless fund routing & merchant payments into one hood. It also caters to the “Peer to Peer” collect request which can be scheduled and paid as per requirement and convenience. UPI was launched by National Payments Corporation of India with Reserve Bank of India's (RBI) vision of migrating towards a 'less-cash' and more digital society. UPI is built on the Immediate Payment Service(IMPS) platform. Banks have started to upload their UPI e... Read More...

  Dec 31, 2016   General Category

Under the Paris Agreement, climate action was anchored in the context of international law. This requires countries to make their own unique contribution to the prevention of dangerous climate change. The next crucial step to follow this agreement is the rapid implementation by the signing parties of concrete measures to make their individual contributions to the global goal. For the past 12 years, the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) has been keeping track of countries’ efforts in combating climate change. The varying initial positions, interests and strategies of the numerous countries make it difficult to distinguish their strengths and weakn... Read More...

  Dec 30, 2016   General Category

Among the many contributors to climate change are aerosols in the atmosphere. These tiny particles suspended in the air come from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Some aerosols are organic (containing carbon), while others are inorganic. Most aerosols reflect sunlight, and some also absorb it. Many of these nanoparticles have severe health effects in addition to climate effects. Black carbon  particles (a component of soot) originating from combustion processes have been known for some time to absorb sunlight and warm the atmosphere. More recently, “brown carbon” (light-absorbing organic carbon) has attracted interest as a possible cause of... Read More...

  Dec 29, 2016   General Category

Hyperloop is a proposed mode of passenger and freight transportation that propels a pod-like vehicle through a near-vacuum tube at airline speeds. The pods accelerate to cruising speed gradually using a linear electric motor and glide above their track using passive magnetic levitation or air bearings. The tubes can go above ground on columns or underground, eliminating the dangers of grade crossings. It is hoped that the system will be highly energy-efficient, quiet and autonomous. Tesla and SpaceX's Elon Musk has started the building revolution for this new train system dubbed Hyperloop. It will mean getting from LA to San Francisco in u... Read More...

  Dec 28, 2016   General Category

The National Commission for Women was set up as statutory body in 1992 to: review the Constitutional and Legal safeguards for women ; recommend remedial legislative measures ; facilitate redressal of grievances and advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women. In keeping with its mandate, the Commission initiated various steps to improve the status of women and worked for their economic empowerment during the year under report.  The Commission received a large number of complaints and acted suo-moto in several cases to provide speedy justice.  It took up the i... Read More...

  Dec 27, 2016   General Category

The Central Advisory Board for Education (CABE) recommended dropping no-detention policy. This controversial policy is widely being blamed for deteriorating learning levels across schools in India. Section 16 of the RTE mandates that no child can be detained in a class until the completion of his/her elementary education. The corollary of this is continuous and comprehensive evaluation prescribed in Section 29 (h).It is aimed a progressive and holistic evaluation framework, enunciated in the National Policy on Education, 1986 and also the National Curriculum Framework, 2005. The reasons for NDP are: Examinations are often used for eliminating ... Read More...

  Dec 26, 2016   General Category

Net Neutrality means an Internet that enables and protects free speech and expression  It means that Internet service providers should provide us with open networks — and should not block or discriminate against any applications or content. Without Net Neutrality, cable and phone companies could carve the Internet into fast and slow lanes. An ISP could slow down its competitors' content or block political opinions it disagreed with. ISPs could charge extra fees to the few content companies that could afford to pay for preferential treatment — relegating everyone else to a slower tier of service. This would destroy the open Internet. Read More...

  Dec 25, 2016   General Category

The Ministry of External Affairs has decided to take academics and private sector candidates in its Policy Planning and Research. It represents a significant movement towards a more interactive, open-minded approach on augmenting capacity and innovation within the Ministry of External Affairs. It is good that boundaries between the MEA and the world outside are made less rigid so as to permit innovative thinking in various areas, political, economic, developmental and cultural. Over the last few years, particularly since 2010, the MEA has inducted into its offices at headquarters, deputationists from other central services of government.... Read More...

  Dec 24, 2016   General Category

The European migrant crisis arose through the rising number of migrant arrivals in 2015 – a combination of economic migrants and refugees – to the European Union (EU) coming across the Mediterranean Sea and Southeast Europe from areas such as Africa, and the Middle East. Around 270,000 illegal migrants have reached Europe’s shores so far this year, more than in the whole of 2014, itself a record year. Italy, and, in particular, its southern island of Lampedusa, receives enormous numbers of Africans and Middle-Easterns transported by traffickers operating along the ungoverned coast of the failed state of Libya. In Poland; 70% oppose taking in as... Read More...

  Dec 23, 2016   General Category

India realizes the importance of oceans, more particularly the Indian ocean. While security in the region remains a major concern, another way to integration is cooperation in the development of a blue economy.   PM Modi, in his recent visit to Seychelles, Mauritius and Sri Lanka, urged for cooperation in blue economy, which is a multi-disciplinary approach for the exploitation of hydrocarbons and other marine resources; deep-sea fishing, preservation of marine ecology, mitigating climate change by addressing environmental issues and disaster management.   With its advancement in science and technology, India is in a pos... Read More...

  Dec 22, 2016   General Category

VoLTE (Voice over LTE) is the next evolution in wireless calling. The VoLTE technology platform allows users with a compatible phone to place and receive calls over the LTE network instead of the traditional voice network. Before VoLTE, only data was transmitted over the LTE network, and voice calls were carried over the HSPA network. In May 2014, Singtel introduced the world's first commercial "full-featured" VoLTE service in Singapore. Reliance Jio announced commercial launch of 100% VoLTE service without 2G/3G based services in India on 5th Sep 2016. Difference Between 2G, 3G, 4G, LTE and VoLTE1G, 2G, 3G an... Read More...

  Dec 21, 2016   General Category

Ethical and political discussions use the concept of dignity to express the idea that everyone has an innate right to be valued, respected, and to receive ethical treatment. In politics it is used in the context of the treatment of oppressed and vulnerable groups and peoples. Supreme Court held that right to life guaranteed under Art.21 of our Constitution means life with dignity. Fundamental Duties under Article 51A exhort Indian citizens “to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women”. Abolition of untouchability (Art.17), abolition of child labour (Art.24) are also examples of enabling dignity to the lives of the oppressed and the vulnerable. In  2011, hearing ... Read More...

  Dec 20, 2016   General Category

National emergency can be declared when there is a threat to national security due to external aggression or war or armed rebellion. It was declared thrice so far- 1962, 1971 and 1975. National Emergency can be declared again if a threat occurs to national security. It may happen from external sources or from inside the country. However, according to many, the invocation of Art.352 (National Emergency) in 1975 was avoidable. Its enforcement also left many democrats disappointed as democratic freedoms were unnecessarily suspended. Following reasons make repetition of such miscarriage difficult: Constitution has been comprehensively amended ... Read More...

  Dec 18, 2016   General Category

President of India is a ceremonial institution while the American President has real powers. The veto powers of the Indian President are absolute (rejection), suspensive (returning the Bill for repassage after which it is binding on the President to assent to it) and pocket veto which is not giving a decision as there is no time limit for giving the decision. There is a consensus of opinion in India that Presidential veto is exercisable only on the advice of the Council of Ministers (Art.74) as ours is a British type of Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. After the Congress passes a bill, the President may take no action on the bill for ten days. It then becomes law... Read More...

  Dec 17, 2016   General Category

The 262nd report of the Law Commission recommended that the death penalty be abolished for all crimes except for terrorism related offences and waging war. The commission came to this conclusion based on the following reasons: Death Penalty as a Deterrent is a Myth. Arbitrariness in sentencing in Capital Offences leading to a high number of rejections (more than 95%) of trial court decisions in higher courts. Geographical Variations in imposition of death penalty: NCRB data points to geographical variations. Compared to the rest of the country, a murder convict in Kerala is about twice as likely to get the death sentence; in Jharkhand is... Read More...

  Dec 16, 2016   General Category