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Traditional vaccines

  Feb 07, 2022

Traditional vaccines

Q What is the context  ?

A Vaccines like Biological E’s Corbevax and Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin that are made by traditional methods are “just as effective” as the latest mRNA technology-based vaccines according  to US scientists.

Q What are Vaccines?

  • A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.
  • It typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.

Q What are various types of Vaccines ?

A There are several types of vaccines, including:

  • Inactivated vaccines
  • Live-attenuated vaccines
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines
  • Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines
  • Viral vector vaccines

1. Inactivated vaccines

  • Inactivated vaccines use the killed version of the germ that causes a disease.
  • Inactivated vaccines usually don’t provide immunity (protection) that’s as strong as live vaccines.
  • So you may need several doses over time (booster shots) in order to get ongoing immunity against diseases.
  • Inactivated vaccines are used to protect against: Hepatitis A, Flu (shot only), Polio (shot only), Rabies etc.

2.  Live-attenuated vaccines

  • Live vaccines use a weakened (or attenuated) form of the germ that causes a disease.
  • Because these vaccines are so similar to natural infection that they help prevent, they create a strong and long-lasting immune response.
  • Just 1 or 2 doses of most live vaccines can give you a lifetime of protection against a germ and the disease it causes.
  • They need to be kept cool in refrigerated conditions.
  • Live vaccines are used to protect against Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), Rotavirus, Smallpox, Chickenpox, Yellow fever

3.  Messenger RNA vaccines

  • Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades and this technology was used to make some of the COVID-19 vaccines.
  • mRNA vaccines make proteins in order to trigger an immune response.
  • mRNA vaccines have several benefits compared to other types of vaccines, including shorter manufacturing times and, because they do not contain a live virus, no risk of causing disease in the person getting vaccinated.

Q How does mRNA vaccine work?

  • The mRNA vaccines function differently from traditional vaccines.
  • Traditional vaccines stimulate an antibody response by injecting a human with antigens.
  • mRNA vaccines inject a fragment of the RNA sequence of a virus directly into the cells, which then stimulate an adaptive immune response mRNA fragment is a specific piece of the virus that carries instructions to build the antigen of the virus.
  • An advantage of RNA vaccines is that they stimulate cellular immunity.