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Today's Practice Question

  Sep 14, 2020

Today's Practice Question

Que. 1. The Self-Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation, has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programmes. Elucidate. (UPSC - 2015) [150 Words]

Ans.: 

A major effort to provide banking services to the weaker and unorganised sector was the Bank Self Help Group Linkage Programme that was launched in early 1990s on recommendation of SK Kalia committee .
The programme was started at the initiative of NABARD in 1992 to link the unorganised sector with the formal banking sector.
Under this programme, which is India’s own innovation banks were allowed to open savings accounts for Self-Help Groups (SHGs).
 
This programme has proved to be one of most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programme as : 

Thus, SHG Bank Linkage programme of NABARD by providing financial inclusion, access to credit and enhanced decision making for women  has played a vital role in poverty alleviation and women empowerment.

Que. 2. Define minorities. What are the socio cultural problems before them and what measures should be adopted to solve them? [200 Words]
Ans.: 
A minority group, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications.
In sociology, a minority group refers to a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group. 
Louis Wirth defined a minority group as "a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination". 
Socio-Cultural problems of minorities : 
1. Problem of Identity: 

  1. Because of the differences in socio-cultural practices, history and backgrounds, minorities have to grapple with the issue of identity
  2. This give rise to the problem of adjustment with the majority community. 
2. Problem of Security
  1. Different identity and their small number relative to the rest of the society develop feeling of insecurity about their life, assets and well-being.
  2. This sense of insecurity may get accentuated at times when relations between the majority and the minority communities in a society are strained or not much cordial. 
3. Problem Relating to Equity
  1. The minority community in a society may remain deprived of the benefit of opportunities of development as a result of discrimination.
  2. Because of the difference in identity, the minority community develops the perception of the sense of inequity. 
4. Problem of Communal Tensions and Riots
  1. Communal tensions and riots have been incessantly increasing since independence.
  2. Whenever the communal tensions and riots take place for whatever reason, minority interests get threatened 
5. Lack of Representation in Civil Service and Politics
  1. the Constitution provides for equality and equal opportunities to all its citizens including the religious minorities
  2. the biggest minority community, that is, Muslims have a feeling among them that they are neglected
  3. However, such a feeling does not seem to exist among the other religious minority communities such as the Christians, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists, for they seem to be economically and educationally better than the majority community. 
Steps taken to address these issues: 
Hence, before these instances develops into a broken window syndrome, these must be allayed as early as possible.
Government Initiatives in this regard :
The Government has taken various steps to improve socio-economic and educational status of minority communities 

Minority Cyber Gram programme seeks to introduce digital literacy skills in identified minority clusters in India.