Que. 1. Growing feeling of regionalism is an important factor in the generation of demand for a separate state. Discuss. (UPSC - 2013) [150 Words]
Ans.: Regionalism is the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose by people within a specific geographical region, united by its unique language, culture, language, etc. In the negative sense, it implies excessive attachment to one’s region and a sense of discrimination and disliking for those who are considered outsiders. Therefore, it is a great threat to the unity and integrity of the country.
Demand for separate state arises when a regional community feels that their interests are not are not achieved in the present political setup. Also imposing a homogeneous culture threatens the culture and identity of a region which leads to growing feeling of regionalism and therefore demand for statehood. Eg: Imposing Hindi language in South India and Dravidian Movement similarly there have been demand of creation of Bodoland for the Bodo-speakers in Assam. Hence Regionalism no doubt is an important factor in the generation of demand for a separate state. Again the rise of regional political parties has promoted regional aspirations and identity. Therefore, they practice regionalism in terms of demand for separate state for independent socio cultural or ethnic identity. Therefore, it is true that feelings of regionalism causing demand for separate state.
However Positive regionalism promotes a sense of pride in connecting to one’s roots and culture. It has been noticed that often regional movements have helped the art and culture of many neglected regions to flourish by increasing their exposure through local emphasis.
Que. 2. What are the causes of regionalism? Do you think globalization has aggravated the problem of regionalism in India? [200 Words]
Ans.: Regionalism is defined as a political ideology that favours the interests and priorities of a specific region over a greater area/nation. It usually results from political separations, religious geography, cultural boundaries, linguistic regions, and managerial and sectarian divisions. So, causes of regionalism are:
1. Geographical: Natural geography itself brings people together and promotes regionalism. Creates sense of identity.
2. Historical: Similar past and culture bring people together and promotes regionalism
3. Economic: Both Underdevelopment and Over development among states are major factors for the regionalism in India because the uneven pattern of socioeconomic development has created regional disparities.
4. Language: It is an important factor of integrating people and emotional attachments are developed, consequently, the demand of linguistic states started.
5. Politics: Means regional political parties promote their narrow socio political ans economic interests.
Globalization is a multi-layered phenomenon that encompasses political, cultural, military, and environmental factors as well as the specifically macro-economic. Globalization summarizes a variety of processes that together increase the scale, speed, and effectiveness of social interactions across political, economic, cultural, and geographic borders.
Globalization has led to cultural homogenization in India by effecting Indian Culture in means of Food and Dietary habits, Thought process, Religion, Festivals and Language of Indian Society. All this has led to cultural transformation and thus cultural marginalization of local communities, this fear of marginalization has led to increasing call of defending local traditions and thus aggravating problems of regionalism in India.
Apart from above globalization has benefited the rich and prosperous states more compared to smaller and backward state. This has created regional imbalance. So, relative deprivation among the people of poor states leading to the feelings of regionalism. Globalization has also caused migration which intern creates identity of insiders and outsiders. However, at times globalization has been inclusive and integrating for example Secularization of festivals, liberalization of thoughts and free movement of ideas and products. Thus globalization is not only factor responsible for regionalism in India there are other complex factors involved in aggravating problem of regionalism in India.