Que. 1. Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India. (UPSC - 2015) [150 Words]
Ans. Globalisation aims for the establishment of a borderless world. It means growing interconnectedness in world.
Globalisation like other sectors has had social, political, economic and cultural impact on the lines of women in India and the world both positively and negatively.
Effects of globalization on women in India:
- Social sphere : Globalisation has posed a major challenge to the institution of patriarchy in India. As women take up jobs and achieve social mobility, they have also begun to stand up for their rights now women are forming unions and associations for protecting their rights.
- Economic Sphere : Women have ventured into previously male dominated fields. Globalisation allows them to take up flexible jobs. They are playing a more prominent role in society and not just restricted to the household. Countless women now work into the globalized businesses like IT an BPO sectors they are now into higher echelons like CEOs of many companies.
- Cultural sphere : Marrying within the same caste has become less important, and women have in many cases reserved the right to marry whoever they choose irrespective of caste. With changing attitude towards women, especially in the urban areas, women enjoy more egalitarian set of gender relationship.
- Psychological sphere : Attitudinal changes towards women’s role in the family due to good education, benefits of family planning and health care, child care, good job opportunities etc. will surely help in the development of more confident and healthy women.
- Economic sphere: Globalization has increased the number of low paid, part time and exploitative jobs for women. (Feminisation of poverty and feminisation of labour)
- Social impact: With increasing nuclear families, the older women’s life has become pitiable, sometimes spending their later days in old age homes and isolation. Similarly, male migration from rural areas to urban centres has put the women under triple burden of home making, farming and job in rural sector.
- Rise in crimes against women : At the same time, migration of women for economic reasons has led to increased exploitation including sexual exploitation and trafficking, commodification of women, pornography and trafficking etc.
- Cultural impacts: food habits and dressing styles changing rapidly ignoring our traditional values belief systems.
- Other impacts: Like objectification of women’s identity / modesty, role conflict, women trafficking and the victim of false notion of beauty.
Roles of women in India have been changing and they are now emerging from the past traditions into a new era of freedom and rights.
Que. 2. Do you think Globalization is a multidimensional concept? Assess the cultural impact of globalization in India. [150 Words]
Ans. Globalization is increased interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries. It is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, Its multi-dimensional character consists of three main parts: political, economic and socio- cultural.
- It damages existing political conditions, autonomous actions of single states become ineffective while international institutions become stronger. Rise of global democracy.
Economic Dimension :
- Economic globalization is based on growing interdependence of both national and international companies, states, trade organizations etc. accompanied with the increase in international trade of goods, services, labour, capital and technology, what leads to the economic integration and, the emergence of the world economy and world markets.
- Spread of cultural homogeneity and mixed culture and cultural conflict.
- Like changing nature of class relation and class conflict, promotion of gender equality and change in the nature of labour management relation and labour mobility.
Cultural Impact of Globalization on Indian Society:
Globalisation has created both positive and negative cultural impacts on Indian society. Positive impact includes role of information technology, technological modernisation, promotion of the liberal ideas like liberty, equality gender, justice and liberal attitudes of the people. Indian Performing Arts : The Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is too becoming very popular in our country. Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians.
But there are Negative Impact also like commodification of culture, marginalisation of local culture, dilution of core culture of India, promotion of consumerist culture, McDonaldization culture and Walmartization culture.