Today's Practice Question
Sep 02, 2020
Today's Practice Question
Que. 1. How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes? (UPSC 2015) (150 Words)
Ans. Sex ratio in tribes are more favourable to women than sex ration among Scheduled caste as according to Census 2011 Sex ratio among scheduled tribes is 990, while for scheduled caste is 945 and overall it is 943.
Reason for this favourable sex ratio among scheduled tribes are:
- Since antiquity they enjoyed matriarchal society and there is no gender inequality between them.
- Tribal do not go for sex determination and female foeticide whereas in schedule caste the discrimination is present.
- Tribal often follow “division of labour” where women are accorded their share or work and autonomy as such.
- There is no social bias against women in tribal communities such as what exist among Scheduled Caste especially among landed ones due to prevalence of Feudal mindset especially in Central India states.
- There is no culture of dowry among many tribal groups instead some tribal communities has this prevalence of money paid to girls family at the time of marriage for instance in North Eastern states there is hardly any concept of dowry.
However, as observed among more educated tribal those who are mainstreamed into urbanism, sex selection has begun also better sex ratio might be attributed to lack of access to pre-natal diagnostic technologies.
Que. 2. Senior citizens are gradually being marginalised from our mainstream Social life. Why? (150 Words)
Ans. Social exclusion is a phenomenon linked to the concept of exclusion from work, racism and discrimination.
- Social gerontologists have showed that aging reflects not just the physiological process of growing older, but also our attitudes and beliefs about the aging process.
- The older people are experiencing remarkable changes in their physical and socio-economic circumstances, where they face myriad issues and problems like social, psychological, emotional economic and health problems.
They are gradually marginalized from our mainstream social life, reason for which are :
- Intergenerational Conflict because of sometimes their conservative attitude.
- Westernization and growing individualism and materialism in society.
- Change in value system.
- Disintegration of Joint family system.
- Cultural shock due to rapid changes
- Technological constraints.
- Financial dependency.
- Powerlessness with respect to decision making.
- Health issues as advances in medical technology over the past years have promoted longevity but not good health.
- Migration of younger members to cities, and acute paucity of accommodation in urban areas and exorbitant rents which act as a strong disincentive for bringing old parents to live with them.
- Displacement of folk knowledge with the scientific knowledge has lowered their status to such an extent old persons are treated as a burden on the limited resources of the family.