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Today's Practice Question

  Sep 01, 2020

Today's Practice Question

Que.1. Critically examine whether population is responsible for poverty or poverty is responsible for population. (150 Words) (UPSC - 2015)
Ans.
TR Malthus, in an Essay on the “Principles of Population” establishes the kind of cause-effect relationship between both Population and Poverty and said that both are quite interlinked.
The focus of question here is basically on two issues which are intertwined : 
1. Is population responsible for Poverty: 

 2.  Is poverty responsible for population growth: 

However, Poverty is not the result of population increase alone nor is poverty alone responsible for population growth. Overall, it is a complex issue and it can’t be determined what leads to what and thus, the focus shall be on the regulation and control of both of these phenomenon’s.

Que.2. 'What is demographic dividend & do you think that India's population is a great source of demographic dividend? (250 Words)
Ans.
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) defines Demographic dividend as ‘the economic growth potential resulting from shifts in a population’s age structure, mainly when the share of the working-age population (15 to 64) is larger than the non-working-age share of the population’. 
Demographic dividend in India: 

India has a big advantage of demographic dividend, which can be key driver for its future growth. If harnessed properly it can bring : 

However, important to note that this change in population structure alone cannot push growth. For ex, In the late 20th century demographic dividend in Asia resulted in a seven-fold increase in the GDP of many countries while in Latin America the growth was only two-fold. 
So, to harness this benefit of demographic dividend we need to work on some key aspects like providing skill workforce, providing good health and education and skill development, women friendly work environment and to reduce inequalities.