What is this study?
A study was conducted by researchers at University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) which analysed population trends in 195 countries. It used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 to model future population in various scenarios as a function of fertility, migration, and mortality rates.
Q. What are some important findings of report?
A. According to this study:
Q. What is TFR?
A. Total fertility rate (TFR) in simple terms refers to total number of children born or likely to be born to a woman in her life time if she were subject to the prevailing rate of age-specific fertility in the population. TFR of about 2.1 children per woman is called Replacement-level fertility (UN, Population Division).
Q. What are India related findings of report?
Q. What are challenges ahead according to this study?
A. Forecasts highlight huge challenges to the economic growth of a shrinking workforce, the high burden on health and social support systems of an ageing population.
It forecasts continued trends in female educational attainment and access to contraception will hasten declines in fertility and slow population growth.
Q. What needs to be done?
A .Countries should address the potential catastrophic impact of a shrinking working age population. Suggested Measures include: such as incentives to increase TFR, and using artificial intelligence as a path towards self-sufficiency. Wealthy countries such as the UK and the USA could counteract the impact of these changes through net migration of working-age adults from the countries with growing populations. The effect of fertility decline on women’s reproductive health rights has to be accompanied by greater economic independence.