Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1). A quantum computer employs the principles of quantum mechanics to store information in ‘qubits’ instead of the typical ‘bits’ of 1 and 0. Qubits work faster because of the way such circuits are designed. They can perform intensive number-crunching tasks much more efficiently than the fastest comparable computers.
The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is also planning to fund a project to develop quantum computers. Physics departments at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, and the Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, have forayed into the theoretical aspects of quantum computing.