What is NCRB?
National Crime Records Bureau is a government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL). NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.
Why is it set up?
NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators and policy makers to intervene appropriately.
What reports does it bring out?
NCRB brings out three annual reports i.e. Crime in India, Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India and Prison Statistics India. These reports are principal reference points for police officers, researchers, media & policy makers.
Besides, the Bureau is also collecting Crime Statistics and Anti-human Trafficking statistics on monthly basis.
What does the NCRB data released in October 2019 reveal?
Have children been safer comparatively?
The NCRB data on crime in India, which was published after a gap of two years, revealed that cases for crime against children increased from 1,06,958 in 2016 to 1,29,032 in 2017.The alarming number of nearly 1.3 lakh cases in 2017 indicates that each day over 350 crimes were committed against children in India. Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh emerged as the top two states.
What is the trend on crimes on women?
3.59 lakh cases of crime were reported against women in 2017. Uttar Pradesh recorded the maximum number of crimes against women with 56,011 cases in 2017, while Madhya Pradesh registered the highest number of rape cases at 5562.
Uttar Pradesh was followed by Maharashtra with 31,979 cases and West Bengal 30,002 cases.
What concept of riots does the report follow and what findings did it report?
On an average the country witnessed 161 rioting cases with 247 victims every day in 2017. Total number of riot victims in India increased by 22 per cent in 2017, even though the number of rioting incidents saw a decrease of 5 per cent in comparison to the previous year.
India witnessed 58,880 rioting cases while the number of riot victims stood at 90,394. Rioting does not refer to communal riots alone; it also includes rioting caused due to land/property disputes, caste conflict, political reasons, sectarian issues, student protests etc.
What was recorded about farmers suicides?
In November 2019, government released the farm sector suicide data of NCRB for 2016 after three years. According to it farmers' suicide numbers have declined sharply from previous years though the number of agricultural labourers taking their lives have jumped 11 percent. In 2016, 6,270 farmers committed suicide, down from 8,007 in 2015. Suicide by farm workers though increased to 5,109 from from 4595. Those engaged to the farm sector constituted 8.7 percent of the total 131,008 suicides reported in 2016.Industrialised, or relatively better-off states, registered most of the suicides. Like in 2015, Maharashtra topped the list again followed by Karnataka. Madhya Pradesh.
What did the report say on cyber crimes?
Fraudulent transactions and sexual exploitation were the most reported cyber crimes in India in 2017.While cyber frauds accounted for a total of 12,213, the second most individually reported cases came in the form of sexual exploitation. Here, too, Uttar Pradesh tops the list, with 4,971 of the total 21,796 reported cases coming from UP. According to the report, in Assam, which has recorded higher number of cyber crimes than other states in the region, sexual exploitation and personal revenge were the prime reasons.
What are the offences against the State? What is the finding?
The NCRB report states that as compared to 2016, there has been a 30 percent rise in incidents of offences against the state. Sedition, waging war against country and damage to public property are among the offences included under this category. Maximum number of such offences were recorded from Haryana while the minimum number of such cases were recorded from Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).
Is there any new class of crimes introduced in the report?
A new category of offences - "Anti-National Elements", showed that the maximum number of offences were committed by Left Wing Extremist (LEW) operatives, insurgents in the Northeast and terrorists.
How does the Criminal Justice System(CJS) perform?
CJS consists of police, prosecution, judges, witnesses and jails. According to the NCRB report, it is not doing well.
Did the government withhold any data?
Yes. Figures for crimes such as mob lynching, murder by influential people, khap panchayat killing and murder for religious reasons.