The Union Cabinet has given its approval for implementation of umbrella scheme of "Modernisation of Police Forces (MPF)" for years 2017-18 to 2019-20. The financial outlay for the scheme over the three year’s period is Rs.25,060 crore, out of which the Central Government share will be Rs.18,636 crore and the States’ share will be Rs.6,424 crore.
- Special provision has been made under the Scheme for internal security, law and order, women security, availability of modern weapons, mobility of police forces, logistics support, hiring of helicopters, upgradation of police wireless, National Satellite Network, CCTNS project, E-prison project etc.
- Under the umbrella scheme, central budget outlay of Rs.10,132 crore has been earmarked for internal security related expenditure for Jammu & Kashmir, North Eastern States and left wing extremism affected States.
- Scheme of Special Central Assistance (SCA) for 35 worst LWE affected districts has been introduced with an outlay of Rs.3,000 crore to tackle the issue of underdevelopment in these district.
- An outlay of Rs.100 crore has been earmarked in the North Eastern States for police infrastructure upgradation, training institutes, investigation facilities etc.
- Implementation of this scheme would bolster the Government's ability to address challenges faced in different theatres such as areas affected by LWE, Jammu and Kashmir and North East effectively and undertake development interventions which will catalyze in improving the quality of life in these areas and help combat these challenges effectively at the same time.
Police Stations will be integrated to set up a national data base of crime and criminals’ records. It will be linked with other pillars of criminal justice system such as ‘prisons, forensic science laboratories and prosecution offices.
The umbrella scheme also provides for setting up of a State-of Art forensic science laboratory in Amravati, Andhra Pradesh and upgradation of Sardar Patel Global Centre for Security, Counter Terrorism and Anti Insurgency in Jaipur and Gujarat Forensic Science University in Gandhi Nagar.
The umbrella scheme, "Modernisation of Police Forces (MPF)" will go a long way to boost the capability and efficiency of Central and State Police Forces by modernizing them.
Why is it necessary to resolve child custody disputes as early as possible? Discuss what steps have been taken at the international level to solve such disputes.
Child custody disputes sometimes erupt when a marriage dissolves. It creates challenging and disruptive environments for children.
- This disruption is magnified when parents cannot agree on living arrangements, especially if one parent takes unilateral action and removes children from their country of residence, often in violation of that country’s laws.
- Families may find themselves in legal disputes in multiple countries, resulting in significant financial and emotional tolls. These legal battles can drag on for years, leaving children in limbo and potentially harming their development.
However, a global consensus has emerged to address this problem. Ninety-eight countries have recognised that despite different laws and norms, there is a minimum requirement of commitment in the best interests of children.
Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is a vital international instrument that works to protect children from the harmful effects of international parental child abduction. According to the consensus, families agree to follow the laws and respect court decisions in their country of residenceas more families elect to live in a foreign country. One of the defining features of the convention is that, disputes are resolved within months and not years, allowing parents and children to move on with their lives.
The Convention offers multiple safeguards to ensure that the rights of all parties are protected.
- It prevents parents from unilaterally removing children.
- The Convention encourages all parties to seek mutually acceptable child custody arrangements in accordance with the laws of the country they are living in.
- If a parent unilaterally removes the child to another country, the Hague Convention sets forth a process to resolve the issue.
- The Convention does not resolve the custody dispute; it simply stipulates that the courts where the family has been living are in the best position to make child custody decisions.
- Children are not automatically returned to the left-behind parent. If a court orders children to be returned to their home country, it is then up to the courts there to decide on custody, in the best interests of the children.
Joining the Convention can force abuse victims to return to their abusers. However, Article 13 of the Convention allows courts to decide not to return abducted children if the return would expose them to physical or psychological harm or otherwise place them in an intolerable situation.