1. According to the All-India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) report 2018-19, the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in Higher education in India is only 26.3%, which is quite low as compared to the developed as well as, other developing countries.
2. With the increase of enrollments at the school level, the supply of higher education institutes is insufficient to meet the growing demand in the country.
3. Ensuring quality in higher education is amongst the foremost challenges being faced in India today.
4. The Government is continuously focusing on quality education. Still, a large number of colleges and universities in India are unable to meet the minimum requirements laid down by the UGC and the universities are not in a position to mark their place among the top universities of the world.
5. Increasing interference of politicians in the management of higher education jeopardises the autonomy of HEIs.
6. Also, students organise campaigns, forget their own objectives and begin to develop their careers in politics.
7. Poor infrastructure is another challenge to the higher education system of India, particularly the institutes run by the public sector suffer from poor physical facilities and infrastructure.
8. Faculty shortages and the inability of the state educational system to attract and retain well-qualified teachers have been posing challenges to quality education for many years.
9. Large numbers of NET/PhD candidates are unemployed even though there are a lot of vacancies in higher education.
10. There is inadequate focus on research in higher education institutes.
11. There are insufficient resources and facilities, as well as limited numbers of quality faculty to advise students.
12. Most of the research scholars are without fellowships or not getting their fellowships on time which directly or indirectly affects their research. Moreover, Indian Higher education institutions are poorly connected to research centres and to industries.
13. Management of Indian education faces challenges of over-centralization, bureaucratic structures and lack of accountability, transparency, and professionalism.
14. As a result of the increase in the number of affiliated colleges and students, the burden of administrative functions of universities has significantly increased and the core focus on academics and research is diluted