Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI)
Mar 19, 2022
Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI)
Q What is the context ?
A Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) has carried out coastal vulnerability assessment for entire Indian coast at states level.
Q What is Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) ?
- Under the CVI, INCOIS has brought out an Atlas comprising 156 maps on 1:1,00,000 scales to prepare a CVI.
- These maps determine the coastal risks due to future sea-level rise based on the physical and geological parameters for the Indian coast.
- The CVI uses the relative risk that physical changes will occur as sea-level rises are quantified based on parameters like:
- Tidal range
- Wave height
- Coastal slope
- Coastal elevation
- Shoreline change rate
- Historical rate of relative sea-level change
Significance of CVI
- India has a coastline of 7516.6 Km i.e. 6100 km of mainland coastline plus coastline of 1197 Indian islands touching 13 States and Union Territories (UTs).
- Coastal vulnerability assessments can be useful information for coastal disaster management and building resilient coastal communities.
Q What is Coastal Security?
- Coastal Security is understood as a subset of maritime security. It
involves the security of the coastal water zone against any threat or challenge that originates from the sea. Coastal water zone refers to the water area seawards of the Indian coast up to the limit of India’s contiguous zone, or the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) whichever is less.
- Coastal security has a wide connotation encompassing maritime border management, island security, maintenance of peace, stability and good order in coastal areas and enforcement of laws therein, security of ports, coastal installations, and other structures
including Vital Areas and Vital Points (VAs/VPs) and vessels and personnel operating in coastal areas. An effectiveorganization for coastal security also facilitates coastal defense.
Q Why is coastal security considered indispensable for India?
- National Security: The elaborate security arrangements on land forced the terrorists and illegal migrants to look towards the sea where security measures are comparatively lax, enabling them to ‘move, hide and strike’ with relative ease. Plugging this loophole is imperative to enable a holistic national security architecture.
- Economic development: Coastal region plays an important part in India’s economic development. Security of the region will have a direct bearing on the following areas:
a) Trade: India’s sea dependence on oil is about 93% which includes India’s offshore oil production and petroleum exports. Further, 95% of India’s trade by volume and 68% of trade by value comes via the Indian Ocean.
b) Fish production: India is the second-largest fish producer in the world with a total production of 13.7 million metric tonnes in 2018-19 of which 35% was from the maritime sector. In the same period, India had exported Rs 46,589.37 crore worth of marine products.
c) Strategic minerals: India hosts some of the largest and richest shoreline placers. The beach and dune sands in India contain heavy minerals (HMs) like ilmenite, rutile, garnet, zircon, monazite and sillimanite.
d) Geostrategic interests: The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) has become a pivotal zone of global strategic competition.
e) Dealing with climate-induced crises: Coastal zones are already under threat from environmental degradation. At the same time, the sinking of islands due to the rising sea levels in the Indian Ocean may result in the rise of climate refugees.
Q What are Gaps in existing architecture ?
- Lackadaisical approach of the State governments resulting in the slow pace of construction of coastal infrastructure.
- Multiplicity of agencies results in poor coordination.
- Disproportionate focus on terrorism results in less emphasis on non-traditional threats.
- Lack of professionalism and capacity constraints in marine police forces.
- Technological backwardnessPort security remains neglected in most of the minor ports.
Q What are ways to fill gaps in the existing architecture ?
- Enacting the proposed Coastal Security Bill that will facilitate the creation of NMA.
- Strengthening the surveillance system
- Creation of Central Marine Police Force (CMPF)
- Promulgate the National commercial maritime security policy document for efficient, coordinated, and effective actions.
- Effective involvement of Coastal communities such as fishermen.
- Reinforcing Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) regulations
Recalibrate the defense expenditure to increase capacity and resources.
Q What are key details about INCOIS ?
- Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) is an autonomous body under Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
- It has been issuing alerts on Potential Fishing Zone, Ocean State Forecast, Tsunami Early Warning, Storm Surge Early Warning, High Wave Alerts, etc.
- It works through a dedicated ocean modeling, observations, computation facilities and the marine data center.